pandemic transformed pedagogy

When the WHO Director-General declared SARS-CoV-19, commonly known as COVID-19, a pandemic (WHO, 2020), K-12 school systems worldwide responded with an almost immediate suspension of in-class instruction. In British Columbia, Canada, the Minister of Education directed all schools to immediately suspend in-class instruction (Fleming, 2020), forcing over 500,000 students and 44,000 teachers to shift to emergency remote teaching (ERT; Hyslop, 2020a; Hyslop, 2020b). ERT involves a “temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternate delivery format due to crisis circumstances” (Hodges et al., 2020). Teaching in online, blended or hybrid learning modalities requires a significant reimagining and re-design of the pedagogy educators use (Jonassen, 2006; Kanuka, 2006). As a result, the shift to ERT necessarily impacts the curricula and content educators teach and requires a change in actions, judgments, and selection of teaching strategies (Jonassen & Land, 2014), leaving many practicing classroom teachers unprepared.

Technology education has its roots in design – creating, making and doing aspects of human activity (Archer, 1979). Often overheard in technology education classes is the “head, heart and hands model” of transformative learning (Orr, 1992; Singleton, 2015). The head, heart and hands model is a holistic approach to developing a transformative experience of learning that relates the cognitive domain (head) to critical reflection, the affective domain (heart) to relational knowing, and the psychomotor domain (hands) to engagement (Singleton, 2015). Technology education and ‘designerly ways of knowing’ is a distinct epistemology separate from scientific and scholarly understandings that helps individuals develop constructive thinking, iconic three-dimensional models of cognition, and a wide range of non-verbal thought and communication skills (Cross, 1982). In the context of this research, TE focuses on developing designerly ways of knowing related to both digital and physical technologies. 

The Pandemic Transformed Pedagogy Project (PTP; began by capturing the needs of technology education (TE) teachers in British Columbia, Canada, during the pandemic. Our project’s overall aim is to find ways to empower technology educators with evidence-based learning designs that they can use with their students that are both flexible in their delivery modality yet meet prescribed learning outcomes (Code et al., 2020; Forde et al., 2020). The PTP has evolved into a study to understand why the pandemic declaration and the switch to ERT was a particularly ‘disorienting dilemma’ for technology educators.


How has the switch to ERT affected the pedagogy of TE teachers?

How has the switch to ERT affected TE teachers’ interactions with students?

Has the pandemic and forced switch to ERT represent a disorienting dilemma for TE teachers?

Research Team

Jillianne Code, PhD

Principal Investigator
Rachel Ralph

Rachel Ralph, PhD

Co-Principal Investigator
Kieran Forde

Kieran Forde, PhD Candidate

Research Associate
Rachel Moylan

Rachel Moylan

Research Assistant



Code, J.; Forde, K.; Moylan, R.; Ralph, R.

Head, heart and hands: A multilevel mixed methods study Proceedings Article

In: 2023.


Code, J; Moylan, R; Forde, K; Ralph, R

Teachers’ sense of efficacy during a time of crisis Journal Article Forthcoming

In: Manuscript under review, Forthcoming.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Code, J; Forde, K; Moylan, R; Ralph, R

The impact of pandemic transformed pedagogy on technology educators: A mixed methods study Proceedings Article

In: American Educational Research Association Annual Conference 2023.

Abstract | BibTeX


Code, J; Ralph, R; Forde, K

A disorienting dilemma: Teaching and learning in technology education during a time of crisis Journal Article

In: Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, vol. 22, pp. 170–189, 2022.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX


Code, J; Ralph, R; Forde, K

Pandemic designs for the future: Perspectives of technology education teachers during COVID-19 Journal Article

In: Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121, no. 5/6, pp. 419-431, 2020.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

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